Format B5, s. 188, bibliografia, indeks nazwisk
Tematyka religioznawcza jako przedmiot badań w oświeceniu europejskim
Rozważania nad religią w dociekaniach historycznych polskiego oświecenia
2.1. Rozważania nad religią jako część refleksji historycznej w polskim oświeceniu przed 1795 r.
2.2. Religia jako przedmiot badań naukowych po upadku państwa
Kwestia chrystianizacji - początek opowieści o dziejach państwa czy motyw „cywilizowania się”
Wokół problematyki państwa i narodu - wizja idiograficzna czy ideologiczna
W kręgu kultury i edukacji. Poglądy na rolę duchowieństwa i zakonów
Dyskusja „oświeconych” o tolerancji wyznaniowej w dziejach Polski
Refleksja nad religią a problem kontynuacji motywów kulturowych
Wykaz wykorzystanych źródeł i opracowań
Wykaz ważniejszych skrótów
The book deals with a problem rarely examined in Polish historiography. The reflections of the Polish elite of the late Enlightenment, presented below, are interpreted by the author with particular regard to historical consciousness, treated as a part of social culture, combining knowledge of the past with the system of values. Any definition of the concept of historical consciousness from the turn of the eighteenth century must bear in mind the phenomenon of historicism, characteristic for that period, which displayed the use of history to create a symbolic spiritual-intellectual unity, that enabled the nation to survive in unfavourable circumstances. We can call this the `national antropology. A characteristic feature of this period was the intensification of the activity of the elites in numerous realms associated with the past. This was -- as the author argues -- the effect of reflections about history in general, closely connected with historical consciousness.
The analysis is preceded by an outline of the ideological determinants of the phenomenon. The opening part of the study concerns the history of research on religion in Poland, initiated before the partitions, and continued afterwards. It is presented against the backdrop of the development of the humanities and various sciences (such as philosophy, historiography, etc.) with especial attention paid to the influence of Western European thought. It considers the ideological currents and models of criticism of religion in the Polish Enlightenment. An essential question is the philosophical and methodological turn that took place among the the Piarists in the mid-eighteenth century, known as philosophia recentiorum -- the adoption and the application of new methods of rationalism in the sciences and humanities, but without questioning the truth of sacred writings.
It seems that in the immmediate aftermath of the partitions, owing to the lack of the other activities, notably politics, unrestrained scientific speculation could develop, but only a few intellectuals contradicted the sacred writings. Some of them presented religion as an element of the past and culture, changing simultaneously with them. Most thinkers and writers tried to reconcile orthodox religious views with scientific speculations, and saw the phenomenon of religion as the possibility of joining Faith with a modern scientific and didactic apparatus. The relation of science to religion in Poland differed from that elsewhere, especially from France, where vicious criticism lay at the very heart of enlightened thought.
The author examines opinions regarding christianisation, and the attachment to it of cultural significance, and comes to the conclusion that the late Polish Enlightenment began its reflections on religion from the starting-point of the baptism of Poland. Christianisation as a historical fact involved further discussion concerning the types of culture: opinions ranged from the admiration of the Roman West to the glorification of the Orthodox East. The book describes the patterns of thought on the role of religious institutions, like the clergy, the bishoprics, the religious orders, the papacy, and so on in the eyes of the enlightened elite. Many sources, quoted by the author, concerned the problem of the Catholic Churchs influence on the state and the monarchy in the Polish past. The sources concentrated on the importance of religious cult in maintaining monarchy, yet some of them neglected it, both in the past as well and in the present. One of the principal motifs was the conflict between Bishop Stanisław Szczepanowski and King Bolesław the Brave. It was the archetypal scheme of good bishop-citizen versus irresponsible king -- a fragment of a wider discourse about the subordination of Church to state. There are some additional questions like approaches towards multi-religiosity, and a description of the religious reforms and tolerance, chnages in the manner of describing these phenomena, which depended upon assorted philosophical, intellectual, scientific and political factors. Historical views on Polish tolerance were eclectic and were shaped in two patterns: the first was connected with education and, the second with concept of the so-called `common weal. On the margin of the Slavophile current, remarks were made on the `national character, and the so-called `national anthropology mentioned above. Writers and thinkers defined the `national character inspired by studies on the past. The absence of aggressive wars, assistance rendered to neighbours, pacific inclinations, religious tolerance, and trust towards foreigners contributed to creating the image of a farmer-soldier, deeply attached to his native land, honest and hospitable.
Finally, the book describes the continuation of the models and types of reflection about religion as a component of tradition. The Catholic Church was considered in the beginning of the nineteenth century as an important factor in the process of preserving the national tradition. The changing attitude towards religion gradually gained supporters, athough it never affected everyone. Providentialism (well-known in Polish spiritual culture in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries) became popular again, even in historical reflection.