Sankcje ekonomiczne jako instrument przeciwdziałania międzynarodowemu terroryzmowi

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Opis

 Anna Tyszkiewicz

Sankcje ekonomiczne jako instrument przeciwdziałania międzynarodowemu terroryzmowi
Terroryzm jako problem globalny. Teoria i praktyka sankcji ekonomicznych. Specyfika kontynentu afrykańskiego w aspekcie terroryzmu

Red. nauk. Kazimierz Starzyk

Anna Tyszkiewicz jest pracownikiem Departamentu Polityki Bezpieczeństwa Ministerstwa Spraw Zagranicznych RP. Jest absolwentką Szkoły Głównej Handlowej w Warszawie, gdzie uzyskała tytuł doktora nauk ekonomicznych w Kolegium Gospodarki Światowej. Badania naukowe do rozprawy doktorskiej prowadziła m.in. na uniwersytecie w Oksfordzie.

ISBN 978-83-7507-040-8
Seria: Problemy Gospodarki Światowej, tom 6
[format B5, s. 226, bibliografia, diagramy, streszczenie w języku angielskim]

SPIS TREŚCI
 
PRZEDMOWA
WYKAZ SKRÓTÓW
WSTĘP
UWAGI METODOLOGICZNE
 
ROZDZIAł 1. ISTOTA I FUNKCJE SANKCJI EKONOMICZNYCH
 
Wprowadzenie
1. Sankcje ekonomiczne w nauce o międzynarodowych stosunkach gospodarczych
1.1. Definicje
1.2. Ekonomiczne rodzaje sankcji
1.3. Sankcje w ujęciu podmiotowym
1.3.1. Podział sankcji pod kątem podmiotu sankcjonującego
1.3.2. Sankcje na podmioty państwowe
1.3.3. Sankcje na podmioty niepaństwowe
1.3.4. Sankcje eksterytorialne
1.4. Sankcje ekonomiczne w ujęciu historycznym
1.5. Wybór rodzaju sankcji a oczekiwane skutki ekonomiczne
1.5.1. Ujęcie teoretyczne
1.5.2. Ujęcie praktyczne
2. Sankcje a prawo międzynarodowe
2.1. Problem definicji
2.2. Ograniczenia prawne w stosowaniu sankcji
2.3. Problemy z implementacją i monitorowaniem sankcji
2.4. Wymiar etyczny i humanitarny sankcji
2.5. Negatywny wpływ sankcji na państwa trzecie
Wnioski
 
ROZDZIAł 2. TERRORYZM JAKO PROBLEM GLOBALNY
 
Wprowadzenie
1. Współczesne problemy globalne
2. Wokół pojęcia międzynarodowego terroryzmu
2.1. Definicja terroryzmu międzynarodowego
2.2. Ekonomiczne skutki terroryzmu międzynarodowego
3. Geneza i rozwój terroryzmu międzynarodowego
3.1. Historyczny rozwój terroryzmu
3.2. Cele terroryzmu międzynarodowego i ich ewolucja
3.3. Ważniejsze ugrupowania terrorystyczne
3.4. Zasoby materialne i finansowe wykorzystywane do celów terrorystycznych
4. Instrumenty walki z międzynarodowym terroryzmem
4.1. Stosowanie sankcji ekonomicznych i politycznych przez kluczowych aktorów międzynarodowych
4.2. Inne formy współdziałania na forum międzynarodowym
Wnioski
 
ROZDZIAł 3. ZWALCZANIE MIĘDZYNARODOWEGO TERRORYZMU ZA POMOCĄ SANKCJI EKONOMICZNYCH
 
Wprowadzenie
1. Sytuacja międzynarodowa jako wyjściowy punkt rozważań
2. Proces nakładania sankcji ekonomicznych w walce z terroryzmem
3. Funkcje sankcji w zwalczaniu międzynarodowego terroryzmu
3.1. Ograniczanie źródeł finansowania terroryzmu
3.2. Utrudnianie działalności operacyjnej
3.3. Przeciwdziałanie działalności politycznej i ideologicznej
4. Warunki skuteczności
4.1. Z punktu widzenia sankcjonującego
4.2. Z punktu widzenia sankcjonowanego
4.3. Z punktu widzenia działań towarzyszących
4.4. Z punktu widzenia środowiska międzynarodowego
4.5. Z punktu widzenia formy sankcji
Wnioski
 
ROZDZIAł 4. PRZYKŁADY WYKORZYSTANIA SANKCJI EKONOMICZNYCH W ZWALCZANIU TERRORYZMU NA KONTYNENCIE AFRYKAŃSKIM
 
Wprowadzenie
1. Specyfika kontynentu afrykańskiego w aspekcie terroryzmu
2. Przypadek Libii
2.1. Przyczyny i charakter sankcji
2.2. Wpływ sankcji na sytuację gospodarczą w latach 1978–1991
2.3. Wpływ sankcji na sytuację gospodarczą w latach 1992–2005
2.4. Proces znoszenia sankcji
2.5. Próba oceny skuteczności
3. Przypadek Sudanu
3.1. Przyczyny i charakter sankcji
3.2. Wpływ sankcji na sytuację społeczno–gospodarczą w latach 1992–2005
3.3. Proces znoszenia sankcji
3.4. Próba oceny skuteczności
Wnioski
 
PODSUMOWANIE
ZAŁĄCZNIKI
WYKAZ TABEL
WYKAZ RYSUNKÓW
SUMMARY
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
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ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR COMBATING INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM
 
******************************* [ SUMMARY ] *********************************
 
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This book addresses a key issue arising in the realm of international protectionism, namely 
the efficacy of economic sanctions in the fulfilment of foreign policy goals, including but 
not limited to the enhancement of national security. The main goal is to comprehensively 
analyze economic sanctions as an instrument for combating international terrorism, and 
to make proposals for the improvement of this instrument in the future. Additionally, the 
author aims to supplement and move forward the academic knowledge in Poland con- 
cerning economic sanctions and international terrorism. This book is based on the Ph.D. 
dissertation and various publications of the author. 
 
The fundamental thesis of this work is that economic sanctions, if correctly chosen and 
applied, may be an effective instrument for combating international terrorism. The au- 
thor argues that sanctions of an appropriate type effectively thrust supporters of terrorism 
into economic and political isolation, thereby limiting their access to material, financial 
and human resources. This consequently diminishes their capability to launch terrorist 
attacks. This assessment is grounded in an in–depth understanding of the experiences of 
Libya and Sudan in pursuing and then subsequently abandoning terrorism as a means of 
foreign policy. 
 
In the first chapter, the basic elements in theories of economic sanctions are described. 
On the basis of Western and Polish literature the author presented her own definition of 
sanctions, including their classification, evolution and the characteristic features utilized 
for combating terrorism. She then discusses legal restrictions and provisions for using 
this instrument. Highlighted are also challenges and threats linked to the use of sanctions. 
On the basis of theoretical and empirical survey, the author argues that the low efficacy 
of sanctions has not been due to any intrinsic deficiencies in this instrument but to their 
improper employment. The efficacy of sanctions is seen to be dependent upon the spe- 
cific goals for which sanctions are being employed. Additionally, it is demonstrated that 
humanitarian objections against sanctions have lost much of their significance due to the 
evolution of this instrument (comprehensive sanctions were abandoned by most sanc-
tioners and humanitarian exemptions became a standard component of sanctions). 
The second chapter is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of international ter- 
rorism as a global threat. This analysis compares and contrasts the risks associated with 
terrorism with those of other global threats. The author presents her own definition of 
terrorism and the main trends in the development of this phenomenon, as well as its 
economic and political implications for the world economy and international society. She 
then describes specific instruments and methods for combating terrorism. The main argu- 
ment is that the significance of the global threat of terrorism calls for new remedies and 
more efficient past remedies, such as economic sanctions.
 
In the third chapter the mechanics of economic sanctions as an instrument of combat- 
ing terrorism are examined. Specifically the author explains the economic mechanism un- 
derlying the functioning of sanctions, outlines criteria for an assessment of their efficacy, 
and presents the most favourable types of sanctions for combating terrorism. Her main 
conclusion is that sanctions imposed with the purpose of fighting terrorism have a much 
greater chance of success than those imposed for political reasons. It is also undertaken 
to verify that sanctions have an ability to cause significant economic loss for the target, 
provided that they are carefully applied. The author demonstrates that economic sanctions 
have a multiplying character — they indirectly affect areas that were not intended to be 
targeted by them, and their final, cumulative effect far exceeds their direct cost. Finally, the 
aim is to show that the threat of economic sanctions can bring about the desired change, 
particularly if the dialogue with the target is continued in the long–term, and mediated 
through a multilateral forum. 
 
In the last chapter the African continent is used to illustrate regional characteristics of 
terrorism. Attention is placed on Libya and Sudan. In both cases reasons for imposing and 
removing sanctions are examined, as well as the economic, political and social effects of 
the sanctions. On the basis of this data the author tries to assess the efficacy of sanctions 
imposed on Libya and Sudan, and consequently, to evaluate the accuracy of general con- 
clusions regarding economic sanctions as an instrument for combating international ter- 
rorism. Both case studies confirm an earlier assessment that sanctions can be an effective 
instrument for discouraging states from supporting or sponsoring terrorism, provided 
that a number of conditions are satisfied, e.g. sanctions are appropriately adjusted to their 
goal and the dialogue is continued. 
 
After the end of Cold War an unprecedented rise in the use of sanctions has taken 
place. This was followed by a serious critique of sanctions’ efficacy by academia, non– 
governmental organizations, and the newsreading public at large. As a result, sanctions 
evolved steadily, giving way inter alia to smart sanctions. However, the reforms of this 
period were not sufficient and a drop in the efficacy of this instrument was practically in- 
escapable. Despite the negative perceptions of sanctions, politicians were not discouraged 
from using them. Quite the contrary, it is estimated that the use of sanctions has and will 
continue to grow consistently. In the era of failures of American military interventions 
and UN peace–keeping operations, a consensus is growing that the international commu- 
nity needs such relatively cheap instrument of pressure when diplomacy fails and military 
operations do not gain public and political support. Even the most critical authors agree 
that sanctions cannot be abandoned; instead they must undergo further reforms. 
Sanctions as an instrument for combating international terrorism are a relatively new 
phenomenon, which has not been sufficiently examined in the academic literature. The 
limited time span of using this instrument and little practical experience make it difficult 
to arrive at far–reaching conclusions. On the basis of research presented in this book, 
there is reason to reflect more positively on the potential for sanctions. Although EU, UN 
and US sanctions did not eliminate terrorism, they reached their main goal — they in- 
creased the economic and political cost of supporting terrorist activity and most countries 
changed at least their official position on terrorism. This result was noted, among others, 
by the US Department of State in consecutive reports called Patterns of Global Terror- 
ism. According to those documents the number of countries sponsoring or supporting 
terrorism decreases progressively. Sanctions also achieved a success in limiting financial
and operational capabilities of terrorists. Furthermore they played a role in the growing 
international consensus that terrorism is illegal and that coordinated global actions are 
necessary to overcome this threat. A wide agreement on the necessity to fight against 
terrorism, especially with sanctions, creates a unique opportunity to fulfil rigorous condi- 
tions of sanctions’ efficacy. In fact, it is the lack of international cooperation and political 
will that were key factors of failures of many cases of sanctions. 
 
An in–depth analysis of sanctions imposed on Libya and Sudan confirms theoreti- 
cal deliberations concerning sanctions used to combat international terrorism. Although 
sanctions on Libya and Sudan did not fulfil all the theoretical prerequisites for sanctions’ 
efficacy, they managed to cause serious economic and political hardships, and to thrust 
both countries into political isolation. Consequently, financial and political capacities of 
both countries to support terrorism were limited, and in a long term both countries joined 
international efforts to combat terrorism. 
 
The improvement in the use of sanctions as an instrument for combating international 
terrorism should begin with an acceptance on the part of decision–makers that sanctions 
are not the ideal solution in certain situations. Before imposing sanctions, a detailed scru- 
tiny should be undertaken to ascertain whether they are really the best option in the case 
under discussion. If the goal of sanctions is too ambitious (for example terrorism as raison 
d’être of the target) or the time span is too short (e.g., a civil war could potentially eclipse 
an existing government), the probability of sanctions bringing the intended change is low. 
Once the decision to impose sanctions is taken, a list of persons responsible for — and 
potentially capable of changing — the criticized policy of the country (in case of sanctions 
on countries), or a list of persons related to the terrorist activity (in case of sanctions on 
non–state actors) should be prepared. Then, the sanctioner should make a list of goods 
and services necessary for terrorist groups and supporting them countries to continue 
criticized policy. For sanctions to be most effective — deprivation of listed goods and ser- 
vices should strongly hurt decision–makers in the target without imposing serious costs 
on the society. On the basis of those lists a model of sanctions which should be most 
efficient in changing the behaviour of the target can be drafted. Finally it is necessary to 
examine probable side effects of such sanctions for the society and potential opposition 
in the target, as well as for third countries. It may be necessary to introduce a mechanism 
which would neutralize those negative consequences. 
 
There is no such thing as one war with terror. In fact each case of terrorism is different, 
and thus it is not possible to define one most advantageous form of sanctions to combat 
international terrorism. Each time sanctions must be adjusted to the goal they are sup- 
posed to achieve. However, in most cases, both against countries and non–state actors, the 
most successful mechanisms for combating terrorism are financial sanctions (both freez- 
ing of assets and blocking access to international financial market), as well as sanctions 
on travel and export of items of strategic importance (especially arms, dual–use items 
and technologies). These sanctions, in particular, impose much greater hardships on elites 
than on society. For this reason they have a potential to exert pressure on decision–makers 
to abandon terrorism–friendly policy. In case of state actors, it may also be useful to im- 
pose sanctions on scarce and luxury goods. 
 
On the basis of deliberations in this book it may be assumed that the following factors 
are important for the success of sanctions as an instrument to combat international terror- 
ism: maintenance of dialogue between sanctioner and target; strong position of the sanc-
tioner and weak position of the target on the international scene; mutual dependence of 
both partners; public and political support in the sanctioning country; realistic capacities 
to execute sanctions; political and economic instability in the target country; dependence 
of the target’s economy on the international market; the existence of a wider strategy by 
the sanctioner, which includes the option of military action.
 
============
Table of contents 
============
 
FOREWORD 
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 
INTRODUCTION 
METHODOLOGICAL REMARKS 
 
CHAPTER 1. DEFINITION AND FUNCTIONS OF ECONOMIC SANCTIONS 
 
Introduction 
Economic sanctions as an issue in International Economics 
Definitions 
Classification of sanctions on the basis of their scope 
Classification of sanctions on the basis of actors involved 
Types of sanctioners 
Sanctions on countries 
Sanctions on non–state actors 
Extraterritorial sanctions 
Economic sanctions in historical perspective 
Economic consequences of different kinds of sanctions 
Theoretical approach 
Practical approach 
Sanctions and international law 
Problems with defining sanctions 
Legal restrictions in the use of sanctions 
Obstacles with implementation and monitoring of sanctions 
Ethical and humanitarian aspects of sanctions 
Negative effects of sanctions on third countries 
Conclusion 
 
CHAPTER 2. TERRORISM AS A GLOBAL THREAT 
 
Introduction 
Contemporary global threats 
The notion of international terrorism 
Definition of international terrorism 
Economic consequences of international terrorism 
Origin and evolution of international terrorism 
Historical development of terrorism 
Goals of international terrorism and their evolution 
Classification of terrorist groups and their most note–worthy examples
Material and financial resources used for terrorist purposes 
Instruments used to fight international terrorism 
Use of economic and political sanctions by key international players 
Other forms of international cooperation 
Conclusion 
 
CHAPTER 3. ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR COMBATING INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM 
 
Introduction 
International situation as a starting point of deliberations 
Process of imposing sanctions in fight against terrorism 
Functions of sanctions as an instrument for combating international terrorism 
Cutting financial resources 
Hampering operational activities 
Neutralizing political and ideological advancement 
Conditions of efficacy of sanctons used for combating international terrorism 
Depending on sender’s position 
Depending on target’s position 
Depending on accompanying actions 
Depending on international environment 
Depending on form of sanctions 
Conclusion 
 
CHAPTER 4. CASE STUDIES OF ECONOMIC SANCTIONS USED FOR COMBATING INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM ON THE AFRICAN CONTINENT 
 
Introduction 
Characteristic features of terrorism in Africa 
Case study of Libya 
Reasons for imposing and scope of sanctions 
Effect of sanctions on economic and social situation in 1978–1991 
Effect of sanctions on economic and social situation in 1992–2005 
Process of removing sanctions 
Assessment of sanctions’ efficacy 
Case study of Sudan 
Reasons for imposing and scope of sanctions 
Effect of sanctions on economic and social situation in 1992–2005 
Process of removing sanctions 
Assessment of sanctions’ efficacy 
Conclusion 
 
SUMMARY IN POLISH 
ANNEXES
LIST OF TABLES 
LIST OF PICTURES 
SUMMARY IN ENGLISH 
BIBLIOGRAPHY

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